Glantreo Analytical Techniques

TechniquePrincipal ApplicationsDescriptionSample RequirementsComments/Limitations
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)Micron to sub-micron sample morphology and topography information. Equipped with EDS (elemental analysis) capability.
Secondary and backscattered electrons are used to generate 3D-like, high-resolution images.
Non-volatile solid sample.Magnification 50X to 200,000X. 5 nm resolution.
Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX or EDS)
Spatially resolved near surface (depth of a few microns) elemental analysis for detection of elements B to U. Point, line scan and mapping capabilities.Sample is irradiated with x-rays generated in an electron microscope. Characteristic x-rays are measured based on the energy of the emitted x-rays.
Solid, non-volatile sample.
Part per thousand detection limits. Semi quantitative. 250 nm spatial resolution.
Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (XPS)
Surface elemental and bonding information including element identification, depth profiling and element mapping.
Sample is irradiated with x-rays and the emitted photoelectrons are measured as a function of binding energy.
Sample must be a vacuum stable, clean solid.
Part per thousand detection limits. 30 micron lateral resolution; 30-50 Angstrom probe depth resolution.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)Provision of fine, microstructure information including filler/phase dispersion and crystallinity.High energy electrons are transmitted through a thin sample to obtain high resolution images.
Most solids and liquids. Cryo microtome and cryo plunge sample preparation.
Extensive sample preparation may be required. ~2 Angstrom resolution.
X-ray Diffraction (XRD)
Identification of crystalline compounds, crystalline size and percent crystallinity.
The angle and intensity of x-rays diffracted from a material are measured.
Crystalline partially crystalline polymers and crystalline containing liquids.
Generally nondestructive technique.
Particle Size AnalysisProvision of Particle Size of sample.Laser light scattering is utilised to measure the particle size of the sample.Dry powders and liquid dispersions.Sample can be reclaimed.
MicroanalysisDetermination of %C, %H, &N and &S within a sample.Combustion techniques are employer to determine the percentages of certain elements within a sample.Solid samplesDestructive
Surface area measurements (BET)Determination of surface area, pore volume and pore diameters within a samples.Nitrogen adsorption is utilised to determine the physiochemical properties of a samples.Solid/powder samples.Non destructive
Differential Scanning Calorimetery (DSC)Determining melting points/phase inversion temperature/impurities etc.DSC directly measures heat changes that occur in sample during controlled increase or decrease in temperature.Solid and liquid samples.May be particular useful with polymer species/destructive.
Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)Determines % water in a polymer sample.A sample is heated and its weight/mass is constantly monitored.SolidsDestructive
Viscosity Measurements (via Brookfield)Determine the viscosity within a liquid/viscous solution.Brookfield rotational viscometers measure viscosity by sensing the torque required to rotate a spindle at constant speed while immersed in fluid.LiquidsNon destructive
Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)Determination of ppm/ppb levels of elements within a sample.ICP is a type of emission spectroscopy that uses the inductively coupled plasma to produce excited atoms and ions that emit electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths characteristic of a particular element.Liquids or solids that are easily digestible (usually in nitric acid).Can generally determine to a ppb level any element within a liquid or solid sample. Solid sample generally need digestion.