|Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
|Micron to sub-micron sample morphology and topography information. Equipped with EDS (elemental analysis) capability.
|Secondary and backscattered electrons are used to generate 3D-like, high-resolution images.
|Non-volatile solid sample.
|Magnification 50X to 200,000X. 5 nm resolution.
|Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX or EDS)
|Spatially resolved near surface (depth of a few microns) elemental analysis for detection of elements B to U. Point, line scan and mapping capabilities.
|Sample is irradiated with x-rays generated in an electron microscope. Characteristic x-rays are measured based on the energy of the emitted x-rays.
|Solid, non-volatile sample.
|Part per thousand detection limits. Semi quantitative. 250 nm spatial resolution.
|Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (XPS)
|Surface elemental and bonding information including element identification, depth profiling and element mapping.
|Sample is irradiated with x-rays and the emitted photoelectrons are measured as a function of binding energy.
|Sample must be a vacuum stable, clean solid.
|Part per thousand detection limits. 30 micron lateral resolution; 30-50 Angstrom probe depth resolution.
|Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
|Provision of fine, microstructure information including filler/phase dispersion and crystallinity.
|High energy electrons are transmitted through a thin sample to obtain high resolution images.
|Most solids and liquids. Cryo microtome and cryo plunge sample preparation.
|Extensive sample preparation may be required. ~2 Angstrom resolution.
|X-ray Diffraction (XRD)
|Identification of crystalline compounds, crystalline size and percent crystallinity.
|The angle and intensity of x-rays diffracted from a material are measured.
|Crystalline partially crystalline polymers and crystalline containing liquids.
|Generally nondestructive technique.
|Particle Size Analysis
|Provision of Particle Size of sample.
|Laser light scattering is utilised to measure the particle size of the sample.
|Dry powders and liquid dispersions.
|Sample can be reclaimed.
|Determination of %C, %H, &N and &S within a sample.
|Combustion techniques are employer to determine the percentages of certain elements within a sample.
|Surface area measurements (BET)
|Determination of surface area, pore volume and pore diameters within a samples.
|Nitrogen adsorption is utilised to determine the physiochemical properties of a samples.
|Differential Scanning Calorimetery (DSC)
|Determining melting points/phase inversion temperature/impurities etc.
|DSC directly measures heat changes that occur in sample during controlled increase or decrease in temperature.
|Solid and liquid samples.
|May be particular useful with polymer species/destructive.
|Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)
|Determines % water in a polymer sample.
|A sample is heated and its weight/mass is constantly monitored.
|Viscosity Measurements (via Brookfield)
|Determine the viscosity within a liquid/viscous solution.
|Brookfield rotational viscometers measure viscosity by sensing the torque required to rotate a spindle at constant speed while immersed in fluid.
|Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)
|Determination of ppm/ppb levels of elements within a sample.
|ICP is a type of emission spectroscopy that uses the inductively coupled plasma to produce excited atoms and ions that emit electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths characteristic of a particular element.
|Liquids or solids that are easily digestible (usually in nitric acid).
|Can generally determine to a ppb level any element within a liquid or solid sample. Solid sample generally need digestion.